You must have played a lot of chess
matches in your career. Could you recall and tell about
one of them, the most extraordinary one? Well, perhaps I can, since I am one of the few modern
chess players, who are fortunate enough
to play with Paul Morphy. One famous Moscow
psychiatrist hypnotised him and suggested to him that he is a renowned American
chess player of mid-19th century, after which I was asked to
play a match. And the boy was so much into his
role that he behaved like real champion, did not want to
play with an amateur, then he demanded a fee of 100 thousand
dollars. The fee was awarded in the form of a sheet of paper
and the match took place, that was a tight match, however, I won it, but with much
greater difficulty, than, say, half an hour later, when Paul
Morphy again became a common Moscow guy.
NARRATOR: What has allowed a usual boy to become a worthy
partner to Grandmaster Tal? In order to understand what hypnosis is, we visit one
of the clinics, where this phenomenon is studied. A hypnosis session
is being conducted at the moment. I begin a session of therapeutic
suggestion. Close your eyes. You are sleepy. Sleep…
Sleep deeper. You are hearing only my voice. Sleep.
Sleep deepder … sleep … The man fell asleep. Hence, hypnosis is
associated with sleep. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov showed that hypnosis
is an artificially induced partial sleep, during
which the body continues to maintain contact with certain
stimuli. In order to prove it, experiments on animals were conducted. The dog developed a conditioned reflex to the note
‘C’. He ate food every time. This stimulus induces excitement in the cortex.
The ‘D’ note wasn’t associated with food. At the beginning this sound also raises
excitement. Then the dog, after not getting food, ceases
the responce to it. Inhibition occurs in the cortex. Under prolonged exposure of the sound “D” general
inhibition of the cerebral cortex happens. A dog falls asleep like
the person whom the doctor persuaded to sleep. Only those centers which
associate the note ‘C’ with a signal for food are awake.
They form an “sentry point” The dog doesn’t respond to any other
sound. Only the note ‘C’ is easily brought to the cortex and awakens the animal. The human brain is also capable of
selectively reacting to stimuli. Mother is sleeping at the bedside
of the child. She is still sleeping. But when the baby begins to cry,
she wakes up. This is the effect of the “sentry points”. During
the hypnotic sleep doctor also comminucates to the
patient through the “sentry points”. During the
hypnotic suggestion the sentry points are
the speech perceiving centers. DOCTOR: We are on the bank of the river.
Open your eyes. Water is in front of you, look, we’re fishing,
throw the bait, that’s right, watch the float, See, here’s bite, pull out,
grab … NARRATOR: When the doctor is using the mechanism of conditioned reflex, his words can recall only those images and
actions, that are known to patient from past experience. Suggested
dream vacation scene favorably affects the person.
DOCTOR: Now I count to three and you open your eyes.
You will feel good. I’m starting to count.
One. Two. Three. So, how do you feel? -Good.
How did you rest during hypnosis? -Excellent. -How is
your mood right now? -Great. Research shows,
that hypnotic suggestion can influence sensations,
change the functioning of the internal organs. It is known that cooling
skin causes vasoconstriction.(narrowing of the
blood vessels) This is proved by the measurement of the device.
But under influence of verbal suggestion: “I give heat”
the same touch causes vasodilatation. See how
the curve changes. Verbal suggestion was stronger than
the sensual signals. Therefore, it is used
during operations when the normal anesthesia is contraindicated.
During hypnosis the word the doctor has a strong
impact on the human psyche. -Pleasant state of relaxation and peace…
You fall asleep… You hear my voice…
You are going to sleep … Hypnosis has become a reliable assistant
in the treatment of various neuroses. We will visit an other session. Can you recall? Well, now we begin the session.
Now you become Rachmaninoff. The doctor tries to help the pianist
to overcome the fear to gain to overcome her anxiety. Now she plays more
freely, suggestion helped
to get rid of anxiety. But for her to play like this always, it requires long and hard work of the doctor. Of course, hypnosis is not a cure
for all diseases, but its possibilities have not been exhausted.
Hypnosis is waiting for new researchers who will
discover its secrets.